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The concept of sustainable nanoscience is introduced and illustrated using a focused example of plasma-based growth of carbon nanotubes. This concept relates control of energy and matter at nanoscales (Grand Science Challenges) to practical applications that are relevant to a sustainable future of humankind (Grand Societal Challenges). Specific roles of plasma-related effects in nanoscale synthesis and processing that lead to superior properties and performance of nanomaterials in relevant applications are also examined. The path toward the impact in the age of sustainable development is also discussed.