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Wireless access communication system is used to transfer the information got by the sensor system. it is the essential infrastructure of the Smart Grid. Spectrum is a scarcity and nonrenewable resource. On account of the scarcity of spectrum resource, the performance of wireless access system based on static spectrum assignment will be decreased, and the performance of monitoring system of smart grid will be affected farther. In the paper, we propose a cognitive radio based wireless access communication of line and substation monitoring system of smart grid. We introduce the system design and challenges for system implementation, such as communication efficiency and energy supply. The efficiency of cognitive radio based wireless access system is proposed at the end of the paper. Through our work, we wish to make contribution to China Smart Grid.