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In this paper, an automatic visual inspection scheme with phase identification of microdrill bits in printed circuit board (PCB) production is proposed. Different from conventional methods in which the geometric quantities of microdrill bits are measured to compare with the prior standards, the proposed method adopts a strategy of machine learning. Thus, it lowers the requirement for the enlargement of lens and the resolution of charge-coupled device; therefore, the cost of inspecting instrument can be relatively reduced. Our method mainly includes two procedures: First, the statistical shape models of microdrill bit are built to get the shape subspace, and then the phase identification is performed in the shape subspace using some pattern recognition techniques. In this paper, we compared the performance of two statistical model methods, principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminate analysis, together with three classifiers, support vector machines (SVMs), neural networks, and k-nearest neighbors, respectively, for phase identification of microdrill bits. The experimental results demonstrate that using low enlargement and resolution microdrill bit images the proposed method can measure up to high inspection accuracy, and provide a conclusion that the highest identification rates are obtained by PCA-SVMs, which are higher than that of the conventional method.