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Considering the linear wireless sensor network application scenarios, such as road, bridge, tunnel and metro where linear network and multi-hop traffic pattern make the energy consumption unbalanced. The nodes near the base station are required to forward the large amount of traffic for other nodes, which exhausts their energy and results in the failure of network monitoring. In order to solve this problem, a linear wireless sensor network and uniform deployment strategy are considered and an optimal scheduling strategy based on the nonlinear programming is presented. The constraint is formed by the energy model and the requirement of balanced energy consumption. The network lifetime can be extended by adjusting the proportion of traffic and the distance to next hop. The factors affecting the energy efficiency are analyzed and simulation is presented. Simulation results show that energy balance can be achieved by adjusting the communication distance and traffic and network lifetime can be extended.