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The tracking control problem of nonholonomic mobile robots with uncertainties is investigated in this paper. Based on the visual feedback and the state and input transformations, we obtain a new uncertain model of nonholonomic kinematic system in the image plane for a kind of mobile robot firstly, which is a new kind of chained form with uncertainties. Then based on the idea of backstepping and the structure of tracking error system, two new transformations are used. Barbalat theorem and Lyapunov techniques are exploited to design a new adaptive dynamic feedback robust controller that enables tracking the desired trajectory of the mobile robot despite the lack of depth information and the lack of precise visual parameters. The convergence of the error system by using the adaptive method is proved rigorously. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method finally.