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The problem of resource block allocation for downlink Long Term Evolution (LTE) systems is addressed. To maximize system throughput and fulfill quality of service (QoS) requirements among users and modulation and coding scheme (MCS) selection constraint brought by LTE, a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) based resource block allocation algorithm is designed. That is, we propose a coding scheme to map solutions onto particles, and find an operation to discretize the position and velocity of particles and then establish a fitness function after handling constraints through penalty function. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm outperforms in the achievement of high system throughput with QoS guarantee when resource is enough and plays a worthwhile tradeoff between QoS and throughput in overloaded systems.