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Applications of Photoluminescence Imaging to Dopant and Carrier Concentration Measurements of Silicon Wafers

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7 Author(s)
Lim, S.Y. ; Res. Sch. of Eng., Australian Nat. Univ. (ANU), Canberra, ACT, Australia ; Forster, M. ; Zhang, X. ; Holtkamp, J.
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Photoluminescence-based imaging is most commonly used to measure the excess minority carrier density and its corresponding lifetime. By using appropriate surface treatments, this high-resolution imaging technique can also be used for majority carrier concentration determination. The mechanism involves effectively pinning the minority excess carrier density, resulting in a dependence of the photoluminescence intensity on only the majority carrier density. Three suitable surface preparation methods are introduced in this paper: aluminum sputtering, deionized water etching, and mechanical abrasion. Spatially resolved dopant density images determined using this technique are consistent with the images obtained by a well-established technique based on free carrier infrared emission. Three applications of the technique are also presented in this paper, which include imaging of oxygen-related thermal donors, radial dopant density analysis, and the study of donor-related recombination active defects. These applications demonstrate the usefulness of the technique in characterizing silicon materials for photovoltaics.

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Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 2 )