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Process variations in passive components, e.g., inductors, transformers, baluns, and transmission lines, are increasingly degrading the performance and production yield in RF/mm-wave circuits with technology scaling. Traditional statistical analysis methods are not suitable for RF/mm-wave circuits as time-consuming EM simulation needs to be performed many times. In this paper, a statistical analysis framework is proposed for RF/mm-wave circuits considering both active and passive components. Active components are modeled in the standard way and passive components are described with a modified response surface model using a projection-based technique, which reduces the required number of EM simulation to O(N) . During the statistical analysis, the S-parameter of passive components is translated into a noise companion state-space model by passive macro-modeling to support frequency-domain, time-domain, and noise analysis. The proposed method has been justified and applied with some examples designed for a realistic 60-GHz CMOS receiver front-end. The results show that active and passive components have comparable and significant contribution to the variation of circuit performance.
Microwave Theory and Techniques, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:61 , Issue: 2 )
Date of Publication: Feb. 2013