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Intensive magnet R&D efforts are underway to meet the requirements of future colliders and enable new discoveries in High Energy Physics. The LHC luminosity upgrade provides the opportunity to refine the results obtained in proof-of-principle high-field Nb3Sn models and extend them to full-size production magnets, suitable for operation in a challenging accelerator environment. Starting in 2004, the U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program has developed large aperture Nb3Sn quadrupole models of progressively increasing performance and complexity, with particular emphasis on addressing length scale-up and accelerator quality issues. Significant contributions to this R&D effort were also provided by CERN, initially through magnet assembly and test, and later expanding to coil design and fabrication. At this time, the program is completing the technology demonstration phase and transitioning toward prototyping and production. Key achievements to date and remaining challenges are discussed.