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Along with the main trends and future challenges of electrical networks embedded in more-electrical aircraft, this article also focuses on optimization efforts in the field of industrial electronics and energy conversion. Optimization can be achieved by the means of expertise or from classical analysis methods, especially those based on simulations. However, novel approaches based on optimization algorithms, so-called integrated design by optimization, are becoming increasingly mature and will become particularly powerful if subsequent efforts are made in terms of modeling for design. In the first part, the current context and new standards of the more-electrical aircraft are summarized. The second part deals with the new trends and challenges of more electrical aircraft, with an emphasis on reversible and hybrid high-voltage dc networks including new storage devices. However, this discussion will mainly focus on systems optimization. Methodological orientations toward integrated optimal design are discussed with representative examples, such as for an environmental conditioning system (ECS).