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Temporal Subtraction Technique is one of effective tools for diagnosis of lung cancer from thoracic CT images. By comparing two images of the same subject but shot at different time, the detection of temporal changing becomes facilitated. To acquire a more accurate subtraction image, the registration of these two images is critical. However it is not easy as the influence of the slight structures such as lung blood vessel. In this paper, a novel nonrigid image registration method based on vessel structure information is proposed. The similarity of the vessels structure is defined by means of the likelihood function of vessels structure and their direction. We combine this similarity of vessels with the intensity information of images. And the metrics are used as similarity measure in registration procedure. The proposed method has been applied to thoracic MDCT images, and the improvement of registration accuracy was investigated. The efficiency of our proposed method was indicated.