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An effective methodology using satellite high-resolution polarized information to interpret and quantitatively assess various surface ocean phenomena is suggested. Using a sample RADARSAT-2 quad-polarization ocean synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scene, the dual co-polarization (VV and HH) radar data are combined into polarization difference, polarization ratio, and nonpolarized components. As demonstrated, these field quantities provide means to distinguish Bragg scattering mechanism and radar returns from breaking waves. As shown, quantitative characteristics of the surface manifestation of ocean currents, slicks, and wind field features in these dual co-polarization properties are very different and may be effectively used in the development of new SAR detection and discrimination algorithms.