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HERE IN America, we have never been subjected to the kind of devastating all-out home-front attack that was launched against so many cities and towns of Europe, Asia, and Africa during World War II. There are those who may ask, what is civil defense and why does it need communications? Let us consider first, what civil defense is. Briefly, civil defense may be described as the protection of the home front by civilians, acting under civil authority, to minimize casualties and war damage and to preserve the maximum civilian support of the war effort. When a country is under threatened or actual attack, civil defense becomes a full partner of the military in the defense of that country. In recent years civil defense has grown in importance because the progress of air warfare has increased the possibilities of attacks on the civil populace. Industries, vital facilities, and population centers are all likely targets for hostile attack.