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The versatility of CMOS in meeting diverse circuit-design requirements and the reduced cost of processing CMOS are examined from the viewpoint of very large-scale integration. The application of CMOS in dynamic memory is outlined, along with the tradeoffs in optimizing the processing of CMOS devices. The creation of faster CMOS circuits, improved layout density, and interconnections are also highlighted. The necessary advances expected to propel CMOS technology beyond the current level of circuits in the 4-Mb dynamic RAM and 1-b static RAM classes are examined, with particular regard to groove isolation, stacking of transistors, and silicon-on-insulator fabrication.