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18.4% Efficient Grid Optimized Cells With 100-Ω/sq Emitter

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4 Author(s)
Kulushich, G.G. ; Inst. for Photovoltaics, Univ. of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany ; Zapf-Gottwick, R.R. ; Bazer-Bachi, B. ; Werner, J.J.H.

An optimized front-grid design with fine-line fingers allows efficiency η ≈ 18.4%, for industrial c-Si solar cells with homogeneously doped emitter of sheet resistance Rsh = 100 Ω/sq. An additional gain Δ ηgain,bb ≈ 0.5% in efficiency is expected by using a grid of busbars instead of the standard H-pattern front grid. We apply a new method to optimize the front-grid design by minimizing the optical, electronic, and electrical losses of the metallization. The “remove, design, optimize” (ReDO) method theoretically removes the existing contact grid, calculates the ideal efficiency η* without any front-side losses as a goal, designs new front grids for the particular cell, and selects the optimum design for a maximum efficiency η. Starting from the experimentally measured performance of a real solar cell, the ReDO method predicts η of the cell, by considering the dependence of the current Jmpp and the voltage Vmpp at the maximum power point on the front-side losses, enabling a precise efficiency loss analysis.

Published in:

Photovoltaics, IEEE Journal of  (Volume:3 ,  Issue: 1 )