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We propose a millimeter-wave (MMW) coherent radio-over-fiber (RoF) transmission system for application to an access network with a direct broadband last-mile wireless connection to an optical fiber network. The coherent RoF system comprises an optical two-tone RoF signal generator with an advanced modulation format for high-throughput transmission and employs a digital-signal-processing-aided coherent detection technique for MMW radio, which is a technique similar to that of optical digital coherent detection. As proof of concept, a 20-GBd quadrature phase-shift keying RoF transmission over 20 km of optical fiber before a radio transmission over 20 m of air is demonstrated. The results of the radio transmissions using Cassegrain-type antenna pairs with a gain of 50 dBi are consistent with theoretical estimations; this suggests the possibility of developing a midrange transmission system using a high-power MMW amplifier.