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This paper described the principle of transmission line fault location based on traveling waves. The uncertainty of wave speed brings error to fault location based on traveling waves. The present fault location methods avoiding wave speed were based on single or double terminal traveling waves. However, invalidation or great error will occur when the attenuated waves can not be measured after refraction or reflection. The authors introduced two novel and easy-to-measure parameters, which provide a new approach to greatly improve the accuracy of fault location. The first pulse wave of fault also gives many characteristic information of the failure which was used to identify the type of failures to convenient the workers making targeted rush repair. Field measurement and calculation results are compared and the related limitations are discussed.