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Demonstration of an Electrically Small Antenna Array for UHF Direction-of-Arrival Estimation

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5 Author(s)
Slater, M.J. ; Dept. of Electr. & Comput. Eng., Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL, USA ; Schmitz, C.D. ; Anderson, M.D. ; Jones, D.L.
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Direction-of-arrival (DoA) estimation of incoming electromagnetic signals can play a critical role in surveillance, sensing, and cognitive radio applications. Typical DoA antenna arrays use an aperture measuring several wavelengths across to ensure reliable measurement of phase information. For a UHF application, such an array would need to be a few meters across-too large for a portable array. This work demonstrates a practical DoA array composed of antennas with diverse radiation patterns which is combined with an algorithm which relies primarily on amplitude information rather than phase information. This approach yields a much smaller array with similar direction-finding capabilities to larger ones. A calibration procedure captures the antenna responses, including the parasitic effects of the closely spaced antennas. The calibrated array and direction-finding algorithm then achieves measured accuracy with resolution of six degrees with no front-to-back or quadrant ambiguities.

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Antennas and Propagation, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:61 ,  Issue: 3 )