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The authors propose three variants of distributed and stateless forwarding strategies for wireless sensor networks, namely greedy minimum energy consumption forwarding protocol (GMFP), lifetime maximising GMFP (LM-GMFP) and variance minimising GMFP (VAR-GMFP), which aim at maximising the network lifetime while achieving a high forwarding success rate. GMFP selects a forwarding node that minimises per-packet energy consumption while maximising the forwarding progress. LM-GMFP extends the GMFP algorithm by also taking into account the remaining energy at the prospective one-hop forwarding nodes. In VAR-GMFP, on the other hand, the packet is forwarded to the next node that ensures a locally high mean and low variance of nodal remaining energy. Through simple probabilistic analysis the authors prove the intuition behind the optimum forwarding node selection for network lifetime maximisation. They then model the lifetime maximisation of a sensor network as an optimisation problem and compare the practical protocol-dependent network lifetime with the theoretical upper bound. Through extensive simulations the author demonstrate that the proposed protocols outperform the existing energy-aware protocols in terms of network lifetime and end-to-end delay.