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Based on the observed temperature information of arch dam, the mathematical and mechanical methods are combined usually with dam engineering theory to capture in real time and evaluate in time the developing status and space-time distribution of arch dam temperature, and implement the back analysis for temperature control measures. It is an important step for dam construction and safe operation. Some methods, namely transient temperature-field simulation, thermodynamic parameters back-calculation, and model correction, are used synthetically to solve the above problem. A method is proposed to back calculate the thermodynamic parameters of arch dam by use of the temperature data obtained by the distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS). A problem is studied to couple the simulated temperature field by finite element method (FEM) and the observed temperature field by the DTS. A method is presented to update dynamically the FEM model on the basis of the observed temperature field. An actual engineering is analyzed by the proposed method. It is shown that the DTS system can implement the real-time observation of concrete arch dam temperature field. According to the observed temperature field by the DTS and the updated numerical simulation model of the temperature field, scientific guidance can be given during the pouring process of the arch dam, and reliable data can be provided to analyze and evaluated arch dam safety.