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This paper presents a method for estimating the magnet temperature in surface permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machines during six-step operation. Six-step operation allows the maximum available dc-bus voltage to be applied to a machine, which maximizes its torque and speed range. This can be of importance in electric traction applications, including railway as well as electric and hybrid electric vehicles. However, six-step operation produces current harmonics that induce additional losses in the PMs and can therefore increase their temperature. An increase of magnet temperature can result in a reduced torque capability and eventually in a risk of demagnetization if excessive values are reached, with real-time rotor magnet temperature monitoring being therefore advisable. Six-step operation provides opportunities for rotor temperature monitoring from the electrical terminal variables (voltages and currents) of the motor. To achieve this goal, the rotor high-frequency resistance is measured using the harmonic voltages and currents due to six-step operation, from which the magnet temperature can be estimated.