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Fossil energy depletion, environmental pollution and climate change are common problems of human kind. Therefore, to explore and utilize renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar energy, and develop smart grid is becoming the consensus of the countries in the world. In this paper, the difference between renewable energy power and conventional power is analyzed and then the concept of the alternate electrical power system with renewable energy sources and its characteristics are proposed. The main problems of the alternate electrical power system are discussed as well. Furthermore, the whole solution for the alternate electrical power system is suggested based on the responses of power supply, grid and also load. Aiming at the state of the art of the resource distribution and also Chinese power system, the basic science problems are presented in order to provide theoretical and technical support for the utilization of large scale renewable powers with security and high efficiency in China.