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Dy has been employed as an additive in NdFeB magnets to improve their coercivity and thermal stability, but the high cost of the Dy has become a major concern. In this work, the effects of Y substitution for Dy on the magnetic properties and thermal stability of melt-spun nanocomposite [Nd0.8(Dy1-xYx)0.2]10Fe84B6 alloys have been systematically studied. The results show that Y substituting Dy can not only improve the remanence and energy product but also improve their thermal stability. [Nd0.8(Dy0.5Y0.5)0.2]10Fe84B6 alloy with 50% Dy reduction exhibits a high maximum energy product of 139 kJ/m3 and low absolute values of temperature coefficients α and β, -0.090%/°C and -0.394%/°C, respectively. It is suggested that Y substitution be a feasible way to reduce the cost of the NdFeB magnets and maintain their high temperature performance.