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A transverse-flux tubular linear machine with novel gear-shaped teeth for high force density is proposed. The teeth can be formed by silicon steel laminations or permanent magnets for a tubular linear switched reluctance or tubular linear hybrid motor. With the unique improved teeth structure and short magnetic circulation paths, larger propulsion force output can be obtained with reduced mover weight and volume. Simulation based on finite element method (FEM) verifies the validity of the proposed machine design. The proposed machines are compared with other transverse-flux linear machines. Results show that the proposed tubular motors exhibit better output performance with a higher force-to-volume ratio.