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Monochromatic noise always interferes with the interpretation of the seismic signals and degrades the quality of subsurface images obtained by further processes. Conventional methods suffer from several problems in detecting the monochromatic noise automatically, preserving seismic signals, etc. In this letter, we present an algorithm that can remove all major monochromatic noises from the seismic traces in a relatively harmless way. Our separation model is set up upon the assumption that input seismic data are composed of useful seismic signals and single-frequency interferences. Based on their diverse morphologies, two waveform dictionaries are chosen to represent each component sparsely, and the separation process is promoted by the sparsity of both components in their corresponding representing dictionaries. Both synthetic and field-shot data are employed to illustrate the effectiveness of our method.