Skip to Main Content
The n-side-up vertical light emitting diodes (LEDs) have the advantage of carving the surface of the thick n-GaN layer to improve light extraction and to adjust radiation profiles. In this paper, a two-step surface patterning is employed with the focus on understanding angular light diffractions from both nanopatterns and truncated microdomes. Light output enhancement of the LEDs with hybrid surface texturing is investigated experimentally and theoretically. The results suggest that light is diffracted through the grating effect and curved sidewalls when interacting with truncated microdomes, resulting in a maximum enhancement 64° away from the normal surface. On the other hand, nearly omni-directional enhancement was found from the randomly scattered nanopatterns. As for the hybrid structure, since guided modes in the semiconductor layers are diffracted by either nanopatterns or microdomes, the percentage increase of light extraction from the hybrid structure is approximately the linear superposition of both types of surface textures. The results suggest an interesting guideline to improve LED light output and to adjust angular radiation with the mutlistep surface patterning.