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A classical problem in electromagnetics concerns the representation of the electric and magnetic fields in the low-frequency or static regime, where topology plays a fundamental role. For multiply-connected conductors, at zero frequency, the standard boundary conditions on the tangential components of the magnetic field do not uniquely determine the vector potential. We describe a (gauge-invariant) consistency condition that overcomes this nonuniqueness and resolves a long-standing difficulty in inverting the magnetic field integral equation.
Date of Publication: March 2013