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X-ray induced Sm3+ to Sm2+ conversion in fluorophosphate and fluoroaluminate glasses for the monitoring of high-doses in microbeam radiation therapy

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11 Author(s)
Vahedi, Shahrzad ; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5A9, Canada ; Okada, Go ; Morrell, Brian ; Muzar, Edward
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Fluorophosphate and fluoroaluminate glasses doped with trivalent samarium were evaluated as sensors of x-ray radiation for microbeam radiation therapy at the Canadian Light Source using the conversion of trivalent Sm3+ to the divalent form Sm2+. Both types of glasses show similar conversion rates and may be used as a linear sensor up to ∼150 Gy and as a nonlinear sensor up to ∼2400 Gy, where saturation is reached. Experiments with a multi-slit collimator show high spatial resolution of the conversion pattern; the pattern was acquired by a confocal fluorescence microscopy technique. The effects of previous x-ray exposure may be erased by annealing at temperatures exceeding the glass transition temperature Tg while annealing at TA < Tg enhances the Sm conversion. This enhancement is explained by a thermally stimulated relaxation of host glass ionic matrix surrounding x-ray induced Sm2+ ions. In addition, some of the Sm3+-doped glasses were codoped with Eu2+-ions but the results show that there is no marked improvement in the conversion efficiency by the introduction of Eu2+.

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Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:112 ,  Issue: 7 )