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This paper describes transform coefficient coding in the draft international standard of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) specification and the driving motivations behind its design. Transform coefficient coding in HEVC encompasses the scanning patterns and coding methods for the last significant coefficient, significance map, coefficient levels, and sign data. Special attention is paid to the new methods of last significant coefficient coding, multilevel significance maps, high-throughput binarization, and sign data hiding. Experimental results are provided to evaluate the performance of transform coefficient coding in HEVC.