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Hedonic Coalition Formation Game for Cooperative Spectrum Sensing and Channel Access in Cognitive Radio Networks

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4 Author(s)
Xiaolei Hao ; TELUS Mobility, Vancouver, Canada ; Man Hon Cheung ; Vincent W. S. Wong ; Victor C. M. Leung

Cooperative spectrum sensing is an effective technique to improve the sensing performance and increase the spectrum efficiency in cognitive radio networks (CRNs). In this paper, we consider a CRN with multiple primary users (PUs) and multiple secondary users (SUs). We first propose a cooperative spectrum sensing and access (CSSA) scheme for all the SUs, where the SUs cooperatively sense the licensed channels of the PUs in the sensing subframe. If a channel is determined to be idle, the SUs which have sensed that channel will have a chance to transmit packets in the data transmission subframe. We then formulate this multi-channel spectrum sensing and channel access problem as a hedonic coalition formation game, where a coalition corresponds to the SUs that have chosen to sense and access a particular channel. The value function of each coalition and the utility function of each SU take into account both the sensing accuracy and the energy consumption. We propose an algorithm for decision node selection in a coalition. Moreover, we propose an algorithm based on the switch rule to allow the SUs to make decisions on whether to join or leave a coalition. We prove analytically that the set with all the SUs converges to a final network partition, which is both Nash-stable and individually stable. Besides, the proposed algorithms are adaptive to changes in network conditions. Simulation results show that our proposed CSSA scheme achieves a better performance than the closest PU (CPU) scheme and the noncooperative spectrum sensing and access (NSSA) scheme in terms of the average utility of the SUs.

Published in:

IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications  (Volume:11 ,  Issue: 11 )