By Topic

Residual and bending stress measurements by X-ray diffraction and synchrotron diffraction analysis in silicon solar cells

Sign In

Cookies must be enabled to login.After enabling cookies , please use refresh or reload or ctrl+f5 on the browser for the login options.

Formats Non-Member Member
$31 $13
Learn how you can qualify for the best price for this item!
Become an IEEE Member or Subscribe to
IEEE Xplore for exclusive pricing!
close button

puzzle piece

IEEE membership options for an individual and IEEE Xplore subscriptions for an organization offer the most affordable access to essential journal articles, conference papers, standards, eBooks, and eLearning courses.

Learn more about:

IEEE membership

IEEE Xplore subscriptions

7 Author(s)
Popovich, V.A. ; Dept. of Mater. Sci. & Eng., Delft Univ. of Technol., Delft, Netherlands ; van der Pers, N. ; Janssen, M. ; Bennett, I.J.
more authors

The presence of residual stresses in multicrystalline silicon solar cells has become a problem of growing importance, especially in view of silicon wafer thickness reduction. Without increasing the wafer strength, this leads to a high fracture rate during subsequent handling and processing steps. The most critical processing step during the manufacture of screen-printed solar cells is the firing of metallic contacts. In this work we evaluate the development of mechanical stresses in metallic contacts (Al, Ag and Al/Ag bus bars) with respect to different processing steps. For this purpose we combine X-ray diffraction (XRD) stress measurements, Synchrotron measurements, cell bowing measurements with a laser scanning device and in-situ bending tests. Synchrotron diffraction analysis showed that there is a stress gradient in both Ag and Al layers. It was found that the Al back contact layer represents a very porous/loose microstructure, which does not affect the mechanical stability of the solar cell. It was also found that the thickness and composition of the eutectic layer are the most important factors influencing the bowing of a complete solar cell. Furthermore, residual stresses and stresses developing during cell bending in Ag, Al/Ag bus bars are measured and discussed in detail in this work.

Published in:

Photovoltaic Specialists Conference (PVSC), 2012 38th IEEE

Date of Conference:

3-8 June 2012