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This paper studies static eccentricity (SE) fault detection in axial-flux permanent-magnet (AFPM) machines using 3-D finite-element analysis. The use of numerical modeling makes it possible to precisely study the eccentricity fault detection in these types of machines. The simulations are validated using experimental measurements. To the best knowledge of the authors, SE fault detection in AFPMs has not been studied before. Hence, a new definition for the SE factor is presented in these types of machines. A motor with different degrees of rotor eccentricity is simulated, and the back electromotive force (EMF) of all coils of the stator is obtained. In addition, an appropriate criterion has been presented for the fault detection using the back EMF of the coils. This study indicates that the back EMF of the coils of the stator is a good criterion for eccentricity fault detection. It is observed that the unbalanced back EMF suggests a method for the indirect measurement of eccentricity that could be carried out during manufacturing and assembling processes or maintenance operation.