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A photovoltaic (PV) generation system (PGS) is becoming increasingly important as renewable energy sources due to its advantages such as absence of fuel cost, low maintenance requirement, and environmental friendliness. For large PGS, the probability for partially shaded condition (PSC) to occur is also high. Under PSC, the P-V curve of PGS exhibits multiple peaks, which reduces the effectiveness of conventional maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods. In this paper, a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based MPPT algorithm for PGS operating under PSC is proposed. The standard version of PSO is modified to meet the practical consideration of PGS operating under PSC. The problem formulation, design procedure, and parameter setting method which takes the hardware limitation into account are described and explained in detail. The proposed method boasts the advantages such as easy to implement, system-independent, and high tracking efficiency. To validate the correctness of the proposed method, simulation, and experimental results of a 500-W PGS will also be provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.