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As the integration of high precision optical system, the space laser communication system has many indexes reaching or close to the diffraction limit. Because the system is working in near space environment, which is quite different to the ground, the optical system quality needs to be evaluated in the severe environment. This paper, taking space laser communication optical system as an example, using software to simulate and analyze the temperature and the pressure of environmental adaptability, and draws a conclusion. That is, the near space environment has a effect on the space laser communication optical system, and the effect can be reduced by adjustment in design and assembly or mitigating temperature controller.