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An outline is given of the optimal and hierarchical control methods which are particularly effective and efficient for solving some fermentation problems and which can be implemented using a microcomputer system. The literature of the fermentation models which encompass major biological features usually encountered in a fermentation process are documented. The principal features, advantages, and limitations of the microcomputer systems are pointed out. Finally, the practical application of the optimal of fermentation processes using a microcomputer system published previously by the authors are listed.