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Design, fabrication, and performance of infrared and visible vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

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5 Author(s)
W. W. Chow ; Sandia Nat. Labs., Albuquerque, NM, USA ; K. D. Choquette ; M. H. Crawford ; K. L. Lear
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This paper discusses the issues involving the design and fabrication of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs). A review of the basic experimental structures is given, with emphasis on recent developments in distributed Bragg reflectors, gain media, as well as current and optical confinement techniques. The paper describes present VCSEL performance, in particular, those involving selective oxidation and visible wavelength operation

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IEEE Journal of Quantum Electronics  (Volume:33 ,  Issue: 10 )