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Coherence limits for very-long-baseline interferometry

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2 Author(s)
Rogers, A. ; Haystack Obs., Westford, MA, USA ; Moran, J.M.

The quality of the frequency standards used in very-long-baseline interferometry limits the coherent integration time and the accuracy of geodetic experiments except in special cases when clock instabilities can be made to cancel out by using differential interferometry. Formulas are derived for estimating the coherence of these interferometers from the Allan variances of the frequency standards. Experiments using extremely high-quality frequency standards, such as hydrogen masers, may be limited by the phase noise that results from atmospheric and ionospheric fluctuations.

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Instrumentation and Measurement, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:IM-30 ,  Issue: 4 )