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Active filter design using operational transconductance amplifiers: A tutorial

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2 Author(s)
Geiger, R.L. ; Dept. of Electr. Eng., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX, USA ; Sanchez-Sinencio, E.

Basic properties of the operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) are discussed. Applications of the OTA in voltage-controlled amplifiers, filters, and impedances are presented. A versatile family of voltage-controlled filter sections suitable for systematic design requirements is described. The total number of components used in these circuits is small, and the design equations and voltage-control characteristics are attractive. Limitations as well as practical considerations of OTA-based filters using commercially available bipolar OTAs are discussed. Applications of OTAs in continuous-time monolithic filters are considered.

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Circuits and Devices Magazine, IEEE  (Volume:1 ,  Issue: 2 )