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The recent evolution in CMOS as the emerging very-large-scale-integrated (VLSI) circuit technology is reviewed. Various CMOS technologies and their impact on circuit performance and reliability are discussed and compared in generic and special circuit applications. Key issues in CMOS scaling, such as hot-electron effects, buried-channel characteristics, latchup, and isolation requirements, are briefly described. State-of-the-art CMOS design rules are also addressed. Future trends of CMOS technology development in VLSI circuits are discussed.