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A new multiclass brain-computer interface (BCI) based on the modulation of sensorimotor oscillations by imagining movements is described. By the application of advanced signal processing tools, statistics and machine learning, this BCI system offers: 1) asynchronous mode of operation, 2) automatic selection of user-dependent parameters based on an initial calibration, 3) incremental update of the classifier parameters from feedback data. The signal classification uses spatially filtered signals and is based on spectral power estimation computed in individualized frequency bands, which are automatically identified by a specially tailored AR-based model. Relevant features are chosen by a criterion based on Mutual Information. Final recognition of motor imagery is effectuated by a multinomial logistic regression classifier. This BCI system was evaluated in two studies. In the first study, five participants trained the ability to imagine of the right hand, left hand and feet in response to visual cues. The accuracy of the classifier was evaluated across four training sessions with feedback. The second study assessed the information transfer rate (ITR) of the BCI in an asynchronous application. The subjects' task was to navigate a cursor along a computer rendered 2-D maze. A peak information transfer rate of 8.0 bit/min was achieved. Five subjects performed with a mean ITR of 4.5 bit/min and an accuracy of 74.84%. These results demonstrate that the use of automated interfaces to reduce complexity for the intended operator (outside the laboratory) is indeed possible. The signal processing and classifier source code embedded in BCI2000 is available from https://www.brain-project.org/downloads.html.
Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:20 , Issue: 6 )
Date of Publication: Nov. 2012