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Thermal dissipation properties of metal core printed circuit boards (MCPCBs) with a dielectric layer having an anisotropically assembled microstructure are presented for dissipating heat of high-power transistors. The proposed MCPCB with an anisotropic microstructure was fabricated by applying an electric field simultaneously during the hot-pressing process. The effect of the anisotropically assembled microstructure of the dielectric layer compared with the conventionally fabricated dielectric layer was an increase in thermal diffusivity by the enhanced connectivity of fillers. Thermal transient measurements of high-power transistors with the proposed MCPCB were compared with those of high-power transistors with a conventional MCPCB. The developed MCPCB showed better heat dissipation performance and lower thermal resistance.