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In this paper, an accurate fault location algorithm based on parameter identification using single-ended data is presented. It is inferred from the differential equations of fault state network and fault component network based on the R-L transmission lines model. And it takes the resistance and inductance of the system behind the fault point, the fault distance and fault resistance as unknown variables. These four unknown variables can be expressed by the coefficients of fault location equations and, therefore, can be obtained by solving those coefficients. When it comes to the distributed parameter transmission lines, an improved algorithm, combining filtering and compensating, is carried out to reduce the model error. Theoretical analysis and simulation results prove that this algorithm is of high accuracy and low time-consumption. Besides, it doesn't need iteration and the solution is unique.