Skip to Main Content
With the popularity of electric vehicles and development of smart grid the research focus on V2G. A large number of electric vehicles as distributed energy storage units can feedback to the grid when the grid needs to provide energy and ancillary services. Electric vehicles can either simulate the generator droop characteristic in primary frequency regulation or be based on area control error (ACE) in the power system secondary frequency modulation. At the same time, electric vehicles can be involved in the third frequency modulation based on economic dispatch. In this study, we establish signal area power system model and interconnected two-area model containing V2G and analyze the effects of V2G participation in secondary frequency modulation based on ACE. The results show that V2G can effectively reduce the frequency deviation and tie-line flow deviation, lower system reserve capacity.