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We introduce a multi-region model for simultaneous segmentation of medical images. In contrast to many other models, geometric constraints such as inclusion and exclusion between the regions are enforced, which makes it possible to correctly segment different regions even if the intensity distributions are identical. We efficiently optimize the model using a combination of graph cuts and Lagrangian duality which is faster and more memory efficient than current state of the art. As the method is based on global optimization techniques, the resulting segmentations are independent of initialization. We apply our framework to the segmentation of the left and right ventricles, myocardium and the left ventricular papillary muscles in magnetic resonance imaging and to lung segmentation in full-body X-ray computed tomography. We evaluate our approach on a publicly available benchmark with competitive results.