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The ESD robustness of GaN-on-Si Schottky diodes is investigated using on-wafer HBM and TLP. Both forward and reverse diode operation modes are analyzed as a function of device geometry, which strongly impact the corresponding failure mechanism. In forward mode, the anode-to-cathode length reduction and the total device width increase are beneficial for ESD robustness; however, in reverse mode, the ESD robustness does not depend on the total device width and saturates at around 400 V for medium and long anode-to-cathode lengths. The corresponding failure mechanisms are respectively attributed to the current distribution and Si substrate breakdown under forward and reverse mode ESD stresses.