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The tremendous demand on carriers for bandwidth in the access network, as well as demands on carriers to manage that bandwidth, continues to drive the technical evolution of access networks. As one approach to satisfy these demands, DOCSIS?? Provisioning of EPON (DPoE), combines two access technologies: Ethernet passive optical network (EPON) and Data Over Cable Service Interface Specification ( DOCSIS). DOCSIS makes possible mature service provisioning mechanisms based on centralized back-office automation. EPON provides a transport layer between the DPoE System and a number of connected DPoE optical network units (D-ONUs) for distances of 20 km and more. The completely passive interconnection structure of EPON also reduces capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operational expenditures (OPEX) by requiring no electrical power outside of the hub.