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Remote signals available from the wide-area monitoring system could be used to enhance the stability of large interconnected power systems with the help of a wide-area damping controller (WADC). Uncertainty in system parameters and signal transmission time delay are the major factors, which could worsen the damping effect and deteriorate the system stability. This study presents a novel adaptive wide-area damping control scheme in which oscillation modes will be identified online using stochastic subspace identification for online tuning of the WADC structure and parameters using the residue method. A simple and practical signal time delay compensation algorithm will also be proposed to measure and compensate the time delay in each wide-area control signal so as to eliminate the effects of signal time delay on the proposed adaptive WADC. The effectiveness and robustness of the proposed adaptive wide-area damping control scheme have been verified with simulation studies on the IEEE 16-generator 5-area test system under various disturbance scenarios.