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On the Contribution of Bulk Defects on Charge Pumping Current

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5 Author(s)
Ryan, J.T. ; Semicond. & Dimensional Metrol. Div., Nat. Inst. of Stand. & Technol., Gaithersburg, MD, USA ; Southwick, R.G. ; Campbell, J.P. ; Cheung, K.P.
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Frequency-dependent charge pumping (CP) (FD-CP) has emerged as a popular technique for studying the spatial and energetic distribution of defect centers in advanced high-k gate stacks. However, conflicting interpretations of the CP frequency-defect depth relationship has led to controversial and inconsistent findings between various groups. A key assumption is that most, if not all, bulk defect trapping/detrapping contributes to the CP current. In this paper, we show, experimentally using two independent measurements, that there is a large discrepancy between the total amount of bulk defect trapping/detrapping that occurs and the actual CP contribution due to these defects. We argue that the CP current due to bulk defects depends heavily upon the specific device geometry/technology, the minority-carrier lifetime, and FD-CP's general inability to function as a defect profiling tool.

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Electron Devices, IEEE Transactions on  (Volume:59 ,  Issue: 11 )