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Recently, there has been significant interest in robust fractal image coding for the purpose of robustness against outliers. However, the known robust fractal coding methods (HFIC and LAD-FIC, etc.) are not optimal, since, besides the high computational cost, they use the corrupted domain block as the independent variable in the robust regression model, which may adversely affect the robust estimator to calculate the fractal parameters (depending on the noise level). This paper presents a Huber fitting plane-based fractal image coding (HFPFIC) method. This method builds Huber fitting planes (HFPs) for the domain and range blocks, respectively, ensuring the use of an uncorrupted independent variable in the robust model. On this basis, a new matching error function is introduced to robustly evaluate the best scaling factor. Meanwhile, a median absolute deviation (MAD) about the median decomposition criterion is proposed to achieve fast adaptive quadtree partitioning for the image corrupted by salt & pepper noise. In order to reduce computational cost, the no-search method is applied to speedup the encoding process. Experimental results show that the proposed HFPFIC can yield superior performance over conventional robust fractal image coding methods in encoding speed and the quality of the restored image. Furthermore, the no-search method can significantly reduce encoding time and achieve less than 2.0 s for the HFPFIC with acceptable image quality degradation. In addition, we show that, combined with the MAD decomposition scheme, the HFP technique used as a robust method can further reduce the encoding time while maintaining image quality.