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This paper presents potential carbon nanoelectronic applications in battery-powered mobile devices such as mobile phones and laptop computers. Based on the physical behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene and the specific requirements for portable consumer electronic devices, the main challenges and restrictions for the adoption of carbon-based components by the industry are presented. The main emphasis is on electronic components, particularly transistors and radio-frequency applications. A circuit theory model is used to predict the feasibility of CNT transmission lines, and technical challenges that have to be solved before graphene transistors are suitable for mobile devices are presented. The performance of graphene transistors is compared with the corresponding parameters of silicon. In addition, other potential carbon-based applications in mobile devices aside from transistors such as displays and memory elements are outlined briefly.